"In the end, color combinations come down to our personal preferences, which we must discover through observation and experiment."
~ Montagu Don
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Bells of Ireland got their start in Turkey and Syria as wildflowers and were
brought to Europe by explorers; they have been under cultivation since 1570.
The country of Belgium is where all the work was done to improve quality and
make them better plants, so it is considered their birthplace. These unique flowers
are in the Mint family but the foliage is not scented. In the early day of growing
this plant, the bell-shaped flowers were crushed to make a perfume, but the perfume
never became popular, so the plant's unique look quickly moved to the flower garden.
When you look at the long strong stems, you will notice bell-shaped
buds 1 or 2 inches wide that appear as green foliage with white streaks or veins on them. These
green buds are called calyxes, and they cover the inner white flowers on the stock,
and resemble a bell. The early name was bellflowers but the unique green color of the flowers
resembled the beautiful open fields of Ireland--even though they did not come
from there--and the emerald green color of the bells deserved a name change.
So the horticulturist who worked on the plant to improve its appearance named
the plant "Bells of Ireland," because the flower was as much a mystery
as the country of Ireland was in those days.
The first thing you will notice is that the long stems of the "Bells
of Ireland" are covered with tiny thorns. So be sure to wear gloves when
handling them in your garden or arranging them in a vase with other flowers--just
as you handle roses. The bells grow in rows up and around the stem, completely
covering it. The bells open from the bottom of the stem and move up and around
the stem. The white flower in the bell opens for a few days and quickly fades
to green and resembles the clapper inside the bell. If you take good care of
the plant, each stem can grow up to three feet tall during the summer.
Plant seedlings out in May when the threat of frost is over. Because this
plant is so unique and misunderstood, it is not usually available at most nurseries.
You will have to purchase seeds and start your own plant indoors--and now is
the time to do that. From seed to transplanting is about 6 to 8 weeks, so get
a bag of Black Gold organic seed starter mix and start planting.
When I was in Ireland last year, I talked to a gardener who told me to put
the package of seeds in the vegetable crisper for a week before planting to chill
the seed so they will germinate better. She also suggested sprinkling the seed
on the surface of the soil, barely covering the seeds with soil and keeping them cool--50
to 60 degrees with no bottom heat. Once they germinate, move them to a bright
and sunny window, as strong sun will give them better and stronger stems for
when you move them into the garden.
Bells of Ireland love the sunshine, so choose a sunny spot in your garden
for the best-looking stems with more bells on them. Your soil should be well-drained
and the garden should never have standing water. If you have a clay type soil,
add lots of compost to break up the soil and use garden gypsum to prevent rainy
weather making the clay stick together. Soil Logic liquid Gypsum is better than
dry garden gypsum, as it works faster and longer to break up clay soils. She
also suggested using lots of animal manure or compost or even seaweed kelp, if
you live near the seashore, to improve the soil before planting.
Fertilize the plant with Miracle-Gro or Ferti-lome Blooming and Rooting liquid
fertilizer every other week when the plant is making flowers, as they are heavy
feeders--and the more you feed the more flowers they will produce. If you're
using Osmocote, use it at the time of planting and again in 60 days.
Because the plants will get 3 feet tall and possibly taller, choose a location
out of the wind so plants aren't blown over. Plant them where you can tie them
up easily, such as on a trellis or even on a fence. I grew some several years
ago and when the peonies finished flowering I used the peony rings to hold the
plants together. When you set out the plants give them some room--plant them
12 to 15 inches apart. I like them planted in groups scattered in the garden,
rather than in rows in the back of the garden.
The flowers dry very easily when the bells are all open. Just hang them upside
down in bunches in your garage or tool shed where you have good air circulation.
It will take a couple of weeks and you will lose some of the green color but
there is nothing better to mix with dry hydrangea then these dried Bells of Ireland--
and they will last all winter long. As a fresh cut flower, they are also wonderful
for tall or wide arrangements. They will last for a couple of weeks in a vase
of water; they will also bend with the light, giving the stems extra character
in the arrangement.
If the weather gets hot and dry, soak the soil and water deeply to keep the
plant active. If watering is a problem, use bark mulch, pine needles, compost,
seaweed or straw as a mulch to help control weeds and retain soil moisture. If
your soils are on the sandy side, be sure to dig in deep compost and Soil Moist
granules at time of planting to hold water around the roots. Always water early
in the day--never at night--to prevent insect and disease problems. When the
flower stem stops growing, the plant is finished flowering and you should pick
the flowers for display or drying. Bells of Ireland only flower once a year,
so enjoy them while the flowers are on the plant.
Did you know that in the language of flowers the Bells of Ireland represents "LUCK?" Many
Irish wedding bouquets will have a few Bells of Ireland in them for the luck
it represents on this special day. This St Patrick's Day, be sure to pick up
the real flowers of Ireland, not green tinted carnations but the Bells of Ireland--and
may the luck of the Irish be with you all day long. You do not need to be Irish
to enjoy these wonderful flowers in a tall vase of water this weekend. For extra
beauty, just add a small bunch of white Baby Breath flowers around the Bells of Ireland
for great accent. After all, on St Patrick's Day there is a bit of Irish in all
of us. Have a Happy St. Patrick's day!
And to my wife, the former Christine Duncan of Watertown, Mass, who was born
on March 16 at 11:50 PM--just 10 minutes short of St Patrick's Day, and who just
missed being called Patricia because of her Irish roots, Happy Birthday!
Enjoy the holiday and celebrate, because all of us have a bit of Ireland in us on this
day--and don't forget the "Bells of Ireland."
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Irish moss is a luxuriant evergreen plant used as a ground cover. The foliage
will grow 1 to 2 inches tall and the plant will spread well over a foot in diameter.
The foliage is emerald green in color and the plant creeps on the ground like
a fine carpet. The foliage is made up of dense growing strong stems of green
foliage that resemble moss. You read this right--Irish moss is not a true
moss but a wonderful plant that resembles moss, and you will not believe this
until the plant flowers in mid- summer. You see, Irish moss will produce hundreds
of small, star-like shaped white flowers that will cover the plant from late
spring to mid-summer, late May to early August.
Irish moss is a dense-growing plant that resembles a mat of tiny green leaves
on short stems. The white flowers come from individual stems but are so numerous
that at times they will almost cover the mound of foliage. Irish moss will grow
best in a soil that is well drained, a bit on the sandy side and never in clay
like soil. If you can condition the soil before planting with compost or animal
manure the plant will have an easier time rooting into it as the plant spreads
across the ground. Every tiny plant that makes up this mound of green foliage
has its own roots, and as it spreads along the ground, the new stems that develop
will develop roots, helping the plant to grow and expand more quickly.
Irish moss has a very shallow root system and requires moisture constantly,
so plant it in a partially shaded area and avoid the summer midday sun. It is
a perennial plant that is easily divided in the spring during April and May.
The best way to divide the plant is to use a sharp knife and cut it into 2-inch
pieces or clumps. Get as much of the roots as possible when you dig up the clumps
and plant them every 6 to 12 inches apart in your rock garden or borders.
Plants can be found in nurseries in the spring to summer months in small 4
inch pots--making them easy to transplant and inexpensive to buy. Look at the
plant carefully for new growth that is developing along its edges; flower buds
will also be visible as the new growth develops until the weather gets hot and
dry. When you plant, set the plant into a hole as large as the root ball that
is coming out of the pot. If you're planting near rocks or using with flagstones
always use Soil Moist granules in the bottom of the hole and mix to help retain
moisture. I always use an organic slow release fertilizer like Plant –Tone
or Dr. Earth perennial fertilizer with Pro-biotic to help establish the plant
quickly and feed it during the next several weeks.
Just set in place, firm the soil around the plant and water well. This is
all that is needed for this plant to thrive in your gardens. During the first
year, water weekly to help plant get off to a quick start especially if it gets
hot and dry. Once the plant is established, it will be on its own but fertilize
every spring to help it get a good start for the season.
I have found that this plant will grow larger if you are able to provide a
growing condition that has mulch or compost covering the soil to keep it cooler
and help hold soil moisture around the roots. As an extreme example, this plant
will do very well when planted in between stepping stones or flagstone walkways
that receive at least half a day of shade. Dig a nice big hole and fill with
conditioned soil in between the stones so plants have rich soil to be established
in. Space plants every 6 to 8 inches and keep moist at all times. By the end
of the season, your plants should double their size easily.
Irish moss has a wonderful cousin called Scottish moss. It grows and flowers
the exact same way in your garden or walkways. The difference with this plant
is that the foliage is golden-green in color. If you are able to plant both the
Irish and the Scottish mosses in your garden or on your walkways you will love
the contrast in foliage colors. Some seed catalogs offer seeds of both types of
moss but it is difficult to find them both (good luck). I prefer to split the plants every
spring to make new plants; it's much faster to make new plants that way.
When you purchase new plants in the spring from the nursery and the foliage hangs
over the side of the pot, you can split the plant in half before planting and
that way you start with two plants. Both of these mosses will tolerate some foot
traffic on them but not constant walking traffic. Your walkways made of random
cut stones will look beautiful and the moss will fill in those irregular spaces
in the walkway quickly, giving it much character. Enjoy!
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This is the week dedicated to the Irish people, their heritage and their wonderful
country. Very few countries have a plant that refers directly to them as the
Shamrock does to Ireland. Can you envision the green landscape of the Emerald
Isle on St. Patrick's Day this Saturday? Irish or not, many of us wear the green
on St Patrick's Day and celebrate with a pot of Shamrocks growing on our window
sill. Have you ever wondered why the Shamrock is so important to the Irish people
and how it became so famous a plant?
Well...it all began with a 3-leaf clover--not the 4 leaves that many of us
think as being lucky. St. Patrick came to Ireland as a missionary to teach its
people about the Catholic religion and used the Shamrock as a way to demonstrate
the principle of the Trinity. The three leaves represented the Father, the Son
and the Holy Ghost united on a single stem. For this reason alone, a true Shamrock
has 3 leaves and Irish history makes this quite clear. The term Shamrock is derived
from the Irish word "seamrog" which translates to "little clover
plant." In horticulture there are over 900 species of these plants, some
grown from seed and some from bulbs and some of these plants are annual while
others are perennial in our garden.
If you still think that the Shamrock has 4 leaflets, look at the tale wing
of Aer Lingus Airlines (Ireland's National Airlines); it has 3 leaflets. And if you're
from New England or a big Basketball fan, look at the Boston Celtics Logo--the
Shamrock has only 3 leaflets. If you have your heart set on the 4-leaf clover,
start looking as soon as the clover begins to grow in your lawn--you will need
lots of luck to find one. The National Botanical Garden in Dublin, Ireland revealed
that when the Irish people wear the Shamrock it usually comes from the white clover, red
clover, hop clover or a clover-like plant called Black Medick. All are members
of the Pea family. If the ground is still cold where you live, and you want to
see a 4-leaf clover look at the box of Lucky Charms cereal for the 4-leaf clover
on it. Or see the picture we put to the right.
Another family of plants is the Oxalis family; they closely resemble the Clover
family. They are also sold as Shamrocks for St Patrick's Day because of their
wonderful foliage with many shapes, colors and sizes of the leaf. The Oxalis
family also has wonderful flowers in many beautiful colors. Oxalis originated
from South Africa and Central America, and was quickly adopted by gardeners because
it was easy to grow as a bulb plant. Most Oxalis plants are not winter hardy
outdoors but will overwinter in a pot of soil in your basement very easily.
Here is all you have to do to grow these wonderful bulbs in pots in your home.
Oxalis bulbs will be available in the fall and again in the spring where bulbs
are sold at your local garden center. The bulbs are small--about the size of a
lima bean seed--so plant 5 to 7 bulbs to a 4 to 6 inch pot. Use a good potting
soil like Black Gold Organic Potting soil, as these bulbs prefer a rich well-drained
soil that has been fortified with organic matter and contains no clay. Cover
the bulbs with 2 inches of potting soil and keep them moist at all times. Like all
foliage plants, fertilize monthly--especially when the are in bloom. The flowers have 5
petals; they resemble a trumpet and develop in clusters on long stems
that grow above the foliage. The flowers will last on the plant for 4 to 8 weeks
or more, depending on the variety; most have no fragrance.
These are some of the varieties available this week at your local greenhouse
This will grow to 16 inches tall and will look great in window boxes or planters.
The plant has 3 leaflets that are medium green in color and hairy on the underside.
The plant will bloom all summer with red to pink flowers. After first frost, dig up
and pot to store in your basement for next year.
Oxalis 'Iron Cross:'
The plant will grow under a foot tall and has a cross-shaped brown spot on the
foliage that is deep green in color. The flowers are red, and this plant is best
kept in a container.
My favorite because of the dark purple leaves that grow large--each leaflet
is over an inch in diameter. The plant will have white, pink and violet flowers
on it at the same time. The foliage is wonderful when used as a houseplant or
when mixed in planters for contrasting foliage colors. It can also be dug up
in the fall, repotted and stored in the basement for the winter. Bring it up
in January and place the pot in a sunny window and water well. In just a few
days, new foliage will develop and the fun begins all over.
Oxalis triangularis papilionacea:
Nice light green foliage and large leaves like the purple variety; this plant
has deep pink flowers that look great against the foliage. Treat and care for just
like the purple leaf type.
Oxalis triangularis papilionacea regnellii:
Nice deep green large foliage like the above two, but this plant has large clusters
of bright white and very showy flowers. Flowers all summer long and is hardier
but I suggest that you treat like the other two varieties during the winter.
Great potted plant for containers with nice foliage to enjoy.
Now let's talk about the common Shamrocks--or clover. The plants are grown
by seed and are also sold for St Patrick's Day in pots. The flowers are different
from the Oxalis, as each flower is more rounded in shape and made up of many
small single flower petals. The flowers grow an inch in diameter or smaller and
have a bit of fragrance. The flowers form during the early summer and are loved
by honeybees and butterflies. The plants are winter-hardy and can be very aggressive
when they show up in your lawn. The plant spreads with both underground stems and
seeds from the flowers. The plant grows very flat and close to the ground--often
pushing down the grass plant in your lawn and smothering it. The foliage is medium
to dark green with 3 leaflets (occasionally 4 for you 4 leaf clover fans). Makes
a great pastime for the kids to see if they can find one in the lawn.
Clover is in the legume family or pea family and has the ability to pull nitrogen
out of the air and place it in your soil to help rebuild soil quality. Clover
is wonderful to control erosion problems in poor soils on sloping areas and great
if you have animals that feed on your grass. You can purchase seed for white
or red clover at many nurseries or feed and grain stores to plant in areas where
you want a natural look--like in fields or along the side of the road where road
salt kills everything else during the winter. Red clover is taller growing, has larger
flowers--a larger growing plant overall but not as hardy as the white clover.
White is more drought-tolerant, flowers more, is more aggressive and makes a better
food for wildlife. If you do not like clover in your lawn, white clover is the most difficult
to remove. It will take several applications of a broadleaf weed killer to
control it. A little prayer to St Patrick could help!
If you are a lawn fanatic, clover is often considered a lawn weed and can
be easily controlled with a broad leaf weed application about the time that the
dandelions begin to flower on your lawn. If well-established, a second application
will be needed 10 days later to kill the plant. But this week is for the Shamrocks
and clover plants. They were sent to us by St. Patrick to protect our open areas
of soil against wind and rain erosion problems. They will rebuild the quality
of the soil, helping other plants to grow where they were not able to at one
time. They are also a wonderful food source for animals and flowers for the bees
to make honey. So this week, be sure to wear a bit of green on Saturday and make
it a three leaf clover--a Shamrock.
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A Customized Gardening Tour of England and the 2012 Chelsea Flower Show
Paul Parent hosts a tour that includes the Wisley Gardens, the Chelsea Flower Show, Tower of London,
Roman Baths & Pump Room, Riverford Organic Farm, Garden House, Rosemoor Gardens,
Lost Gardens of Heligan, Village of Mevagissey, Stonehenge, the Wilton House
Garden Centre and more.
Click here for details.
This Week's Question
If you kiss the Blarney Stone in Ireland, what talent are you supposed to acquire?
This Week's Prize:
Bio-tone® Starter Plus
All Natural Plant Food Enhanced with Bacteria and Mycorrhizae
For more information, see the Espoma site.
- Microbe-enhanced all natural plant food
- Includes both endo and ecto mycorrhizae
- Grows larger root mass to help plants establish fast
- Promotes bigger blooms
- Reduces transplant loss
Last Week's Question:
Botanically speaking, which of the following doesn't fit in?
- Chili Pepper
Last Week's Winner:
Last Week's Answer:
B. Cucumber - all the rest are in the Solanacea (nightshade) family of plants.
Last Week's Prize:
Bio-tone® Starter Plus
One winner per question - we choose winners from the list of those who answer correctly. Winners must be newsletter subscribers. We'll ship you your prize, so be sure to put your address in the form in case you win!
Are you looking for a great gift for a gardener (or yourself)? This garden
journal helps make planning and organizing easy. This journal, autographed
personally by Paul,
makes a perfect gift for gardeners. The cover holds a 5x7 or 4x6 photo and a
heavy-duty D-ring binder.
- 8 tabbed sections
- 5 garden details sections with pockets for seeds, tags...
- Weather records page
- 6 three year journal pages
- Insect & diseases page - 3 project pages
- 3 annual checklist pages
- Plant wish list page
- 2 large pocket pages
- Sheet of garden labels
- 5 garden detail sheets
- 5 graph paper pages for layouts
- 5 photo pages, each holding four 4x6 photos in landscape or portrait format
Click here to order online.
- 2 lb. potatoes, peeled and quartered
- 6 tbsp. whole milk
- 1 stick butter, cubed
- 1 tbsp. butter for the sauce
- Salt and ground black pepper
- 1/2 tbsp. lard or dripping
- 1 cup chopped onion
- 1 cup finely diced carrots (see substitutions below)
- 1 clove garlic, minced
- 2 cups ground or minced lamb
- 1 3/4 cups beef stock
- 1 cup chopped white mushrooms
- 2 tbsp. finely chopped flat leaf parsley
- 1 tbsp. all-purpose flour
- 1 cup grated cheddar cheese (if you can get an Irish cheddar, by all means, do!)
- Vegetables: you can also use peas, corn, mixed veggies...if you use frozen veggies, thaw first. Canned veggies are not recommended.
- If you don't like mushrooms, add another cup of veggies.
- You may substitute ground beef for the lamb--but then it's a Cottage Pie, not a Shepherd's Pie.
Step by Step:
- Heat the oven to 375 degrees F.
- Boil the potatoes until soft; then drain into a colander.
- Place the milk and butter in the pan used to boil the potatoes, return to the heat and warm gently until the butter has melted.
- Add the potatoes and mash. Salt and pepper to taste and keep to one side.
- Melt the lard or dripping in a large deep pan.
- Add the onion and carrot and fry for 5 minutes.
- Add the garlic and cook for another minute.
- Add the ground lamb and one-third of the beef stock to the onion and carrot mixture and cook, stirring constantly until all the meat is browned.
- Add the remaining stock, parsley and mushrooms, season with salt and pepper. Cover with a lid and cook for 15 minutes.
- Mash the flour into the remaining 1 tbsp. butter then add in small pieces to the ground meat sauce, stirring until all the flour has dissolved and the sauce has thickened slightly, approx. 5 mins (use more or less flour to adjust to your desired consistency).
- Place the meat and sauce into an 8" X 3" deep ceramic of glass baking dish and cover with the mashed potato.
- Sprinkle the grated cheese on top of the potato and bake in the heated oven for 30-35 minutes, or until the surface is crisp and browned.
- Serve immediately